FAQ Cooking

amyl@kauri.vuw.ac.nz (Amy Gale) wrote: LAST UPDATED 9 MAY 1995

This FAQ may be cited as "The rec.food.cooking FAQ and conversion file as at , available in rtfm.mit.edu FAQ archives as /cooking-faq" Permission to reproduce this document, or any whole section or substantial part (unless it was you who wrote it!) for profit is explicitly not granted. Permission to distribute free of charge or with charges only to cover the cost of reproduction is granted, provided credits remain intact. This paragraph and the one above must also be included, and the same restrictions apply to subsequent use of the material.

Welcome to the rec.food.cooking FAQ list and conversion helper!

The primary purpose of this document is to help cooks from different countries communicate with one another. The problem is that measurements and terms for food vary from country to country, even if both countries speak English.

However, some confusion cannot be avoided simply by making this list. You can help avoid the confusion by being as specific as possible. Try not to use brand names unless you also mention the generic name of the product. If you use terms like "a can" or "a box", give some indication of how much the package contains, either in weight or volume.

A few handy hints: a kiwi is a bird, the little thing in your grocery store is called a kiwi fruit. Whoever said "A pint's a pound the world around" must have believed the US was on another planet. And cast iron pans and bread machines can evoke some interesting discussion!

If you haven't already done so, now is as good a time as any to read the guide to Net etiquette which is posted to news.announce.newusers regularly. You should be familiar with acronyms like FAQ, FTP and IMHO, as well as know about smileys, followups and when to reply by email to postings.

This FAQ is currently posted to news.answers and rec.food.cooking. All posts to news.answers are archived, and it is possible to retrieve the last posted copy via anonymous FTP from rtfm.mit.edu as /pub/usenet/rec.food.cooking. Those without FTP access should send e-mail to mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu with "send usenet/news.answers/finding-sources" in the body to find out how to get archived news.answers posts by e-mail.

This FAQ was initially written by Cindy Kandolf, with maintenance and additions in the last year by Amy Gale, with the help of numerous contributions by readers of rec.food.cooking. Credits appear at the end. Each section begins with forty dashes ("-") on a line of their own, then the section number. This should make searching for a specific section easy.

Any questions you have that are not addressed here will surely have many people on rec.food.cooking who are able to answer them - try it, and see.

Comments, corrections and changes to : cooking-faq@vuw.ac.nz

List of Answers

1 Food Terms

A consistent list isn't much good if it's not helpful. This list was compiled with the goal of being helpful, so American, British, etc. terms are alphabetized all together. I have received very little input from folks in other English-speaking countries; more is very much welcome.

I have received some comments that "That's not right!" for some of these equivalents. If i get several comments for the same item, i will change it. In any case, if in doubt, ask the person who originally posted to recipe what he or she means.

1.1 Alphabetized List - different name, same food

aubergine     -  US eggplant.  (purple, vaguely egg-shaped vegetable)
beetroot      -  US beet
Bermuda onion -  also called Spanish onion (which see)- a sweet onion.
   this may vary by region.  Another possible
   alternative is the 1015 onion
biscuits      -  in the UK, same as US cookies, small sweet cakes
                 usually for dessert.  In the US, a type of non-yeast
                 bread made of flour, milk, and shortening, usually
                 served with breakfast - small, and similar to what much
                 of the world refers to as `scones'.
black treacle -  similar to blackstrap molasses
brinjal       -  Indian word for eggplant/aubergine 
cabanossi     -  a salami-type sausage popular in Southern Europe
capsicum      -  another name for red/green/yellow bell peppers
castor/caster sugar  -  somewhat finer than US granulated sugar.  See 2.5
    similar to US superfine sugar
chickpeas     -  also called garbanzo beans, ceci beans
Chicken Maryland - in Australia, refers to chicken leg with both thigh and 
                   drumstick attatched.  In the US, refers to any parts of 
                   chicken, crumbed, browned in hot fat, baked and served with 
                   cream gravy.
Chinese parsley - also called cilantro (which see) and coriander
cider         -  widely varying definition!  A drink (almost) always made from 
                 pressed apples, to many people but not all it is alcoholic.
                 US usage is typically that `cider' is not alcoholic
                 and `hard cider' is.
                 If in doubt, ask the person who posts the recipe what
                 they mean.
cilantro      -  the leaf of the coriander plant.  Also called Chinese/Thai/
                 Mexican parsley, and green corriander.
cockles       -  clams
confectioner's sugar - same as powdered sugar or UK icing sugar
cookies       -  UK biscuits
cordial       -  in the US, a synonym for liqueur
                 in UK, NZ, Australia, a thick syrup (which may or may not
                 contain real fruit) which is diluted to give a non-alcoholic
                 fruit drink
cornflour     -  cornstarch.  Used to thicken sauces etc.  Usu. made from wheat
cornmeal      -  ground corn (maize).
courgette     -  US zucchini.  A long, green squash, looks something
                 like a cucumber.
cream of wheat -  sometimes called farina
dessiccated coconut - dried coconut shreds, similar to US coconut shreds.
                     In the US, coconut is usually sold sweetened, this
                     is not so common in other countries.
digestive biscuits -  almost the same as US graham crackers.  In my
                 experience, graham crackers are sweeter and more 
                 likely to come with cinnamon or something similar
                 sprinkled on top.  However, digestive biscuits make
                 an excellent "graham cracker" pie crust.
donax         -  clams
double cream  -  somewhat heavier than whipping cream
eggplant      -  UK aubergine (which see)
essence       -  US extract (see entry in part 6)
extract       -  UK essence (see entry in part 6)
farina        -  sometimes called cream of wheat
filberts      -  also called hazelnuts
garbanzo beans -  also called chickpeas
graham crackers -  similar to UK digestive biscuits (which see)
granulated sugar -  somewhat coarser than UK castor/caster sugar.  See List 2
green onions  -  same as spring onions or scallions
green shallots-  an inaccurate but occasionally used description
                 for spring onions
grill         -  In the UK, the same as US broiler; in the US, a device
                 for cooking food over a charcoal or gas fire, outdoors.
Habanero pepper -  similar to Scotch bonnet pepper
half and half -  a mixture of half cream and half whole milk
hazelnuts     -  sometimes called filberts
heavy cream   -  same as whipping cream or UK double cream 
icing sugar   -  US confectioner's or powdered sugar.  The finest kind.
ladyfingers   -  little finger-shaped sponge cakes, used in, among
                 other things, a popular Italian dessert called Tiramisu.
                 "Ladies' fingers" is the US vegetable okra.
lemonade      -  in the US, a drink made of lemon juice, sugar and water;
                 in the UK, a carbonated drink that doesn't necessarily
                 contain anything closer to a lemon than a bit of citric acid.
                 Sprite (TM) and 7-Up (TM) are examples of what would be called
                 lemonade in many countries. 
marrow        -  US summer squash.  Also `vegetable marrow'.
melon         -  a family of fruits.  All have a thick, hard, inedible
                 rind, sweet meat, and lots of seeds.  Common examples:
                 watermelon, cantaloupe
molasses      -  similar to UK  treacle
pawpaw        -  papaya, also persimmons in some places, or even a third
   fruit, Asimina triloba.  If I were you I'd check
   with the recipe author.
polenta       -  same as corn meal, also, a thick porridge made from
                 cornmeal (also known as `cornmeal mush', `mamaliga')
powdered sugar -  same as confectioner's sugar or UK icing sugar
rock melon    -  cantaloupe
scallion      -  also called spring onion or green onion or scallion
Scotch Bonnet pepper -  similar to Habanero pepper
shallots      -  not green/spring onion - mall pointed members of the onion
                 family that grow in clusters something like garlic and have
                 a mild, oniony taste.
single cream  -  US light cream
Spanish onion -  also called Bermuda onion.  Large and not as "hot" as
                 standard onions.  This nomenclature may vary in some regions
                 Often used to mean "Red Spanish Onion" which is not
                 so much red as purple
spring onion  -  also called scallion or green onion
squash        -  a family of vegetables.  All but two have a thick, hard,
                 usually inedible rind, rich-tasting meat, and lots of seeds.
                 A well-known fs not wide-spread example is the pumpkin.
                 There are also things called summer squashes, which 
                 have edible rinds, milder meats, and usually fewer
                 seeds.  An example of this type is the zucchini or 
swede         -  US rutabaga
tomato sauce   - in UK/NZ/Australia, a homogeneous dark red sauce
                 containing (typically) tomatoes, sugar, salt, acid,
                 spices, sometimes (blech) apple - much the same thing
                 as US ketchup.
                 In the US, a more heterogeneous concoction, served in
                 and on more foods such as pasta.
whipping cream - in US, cream with at least 30% butterfat
                 (cf light cream (18%) and heavy cream (36%)) 
zucchini      -  UK courgette (which see)

2 Substitutions and Equivalents

This section contains information on where substitutions can be made, and what they can be made with.

2.1 Flours

US all-purpose flour and UK plain-flour can be substituted for one another without adjustment. US cake flour is lighter than these. It is not used much anymore, but if it does come up, you can substitute all-pupose/plain flour by removing three tablespoons per cup of flour and replacing it with corn starch or potato flour. Self-raising flour contains 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder and 1/2 teaspoon salt for each cup of flour. US whole wheat flour is interchangeable with UK wholemeal flour.

2.2 Leavening agents

Baking soda is sodium bicarbonate. It must be mixed with acidic ingredients to work. Baking powder contains baking soda and a powdered acid, so it can work without other acidic ingredients.

2.3 Dairy Products

Evaporated milk and sweetened condensed milk both come in cans, both are thick and a weird color... but are not, as i thought when i was small, the same thing. Sweetened condensed milk is, as the name implies, mixed with sugar or another sweetener already. It isn't found everywhere, but this recipe makes a good, quick substitute: Mix 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons dry (powdered) milk and 1/2 cup warm water. When mixed, add 3/4 cup granulated sugar.

If a recipe calls for buttermilk or cultured milk, you can make sour milk as a substitute. For each cup you need, take one tablespoon of vinegar or lemonjuice , then add enough milk to make one cup. Don't stir. Let it stand for five minutes before using.

The minimum milk fat content by weight for various types of cream:
                 (UK)    (US)
Clotted Cream      55%
Double Cream       48%
Heavy Cream                36%
Whipping Cream     35%     30%
Whipped Cream      35%
Single Cream       18%     (=Light Cream)
Half Cream         12%

For the definition of a specific dairy product, see section 6.

Quark (aka quarg) Will all be added when I can find or determine some good definitions. If you have one/some, I will be grateful.

2.4 Starches

UK corn flour is the same as US cornstarch. Potato flour, despite its name, is a starch, and cannot be substituted for regular flour. It often can be substituted for corn starch and vice versa.

Cornmeal or polenta is not the same thing as cornstarch or cornflour! What one can buy labelled `polenta' really looks no different to cornmeal though, so hey, lets not panic too much.

Polenta is commonly used to describe cornmeal porridge but may also be used to mean plain cornmeal. Beware.

If you don't have cornstarch/corn flour, you can use twice the amount of all-purpose/plain flour. However, unless whatever you're adding it to is allowed to boil, the result will taste starchy.

2.5 Sugar and other sweeteners

UK castor/caster sugar is somewhat finer than US granulated sugar. There is a product in the US called superfine sugar, which is about the same as UK castor/caster sugar. Usually, you can use granulated sugar in recipes calling for castor/caster sugar and vice versa, but i've gotten reports of times this didn't work so well! As usual, give the recipe a trial run with the substitute some time when it doesn't need to be perfect.

Corn syrup is common in the US but not always elsewhere. Sugar (golden) syrup can be substituted.

Corn syrup comes in two flavours - dark and light. Light corn syrup is just sweet, dark has a mild molasses flavour. Some people have substituted dark corn syrup for golden syrup in ANZAC biscuits and found it sucessful. A common US brand is Karo

Golden syrup is a thick, golden brown (fancy that) byproduct of cane sugar refining. The taste is mostly sweet, although there is a slight acidic, metallic component. Lyle's is a common brand spoken about in rec.food.cooking, the New Zealand brandname is Chelsea.

If desperate, a plain sugar syrup may be a possible substitute, boil 2 parts sugar, 1 part water. This could be messy. You may want to thin it out with water. Again, you may want to try this out on your own before making something for a special occassion.

2.6 Fats

Shortening is solid, white fat made from hydrogenated vegetable oil. (A popular brand name is Crisco, and many people call all shortening Crisco.) It is common in the US, tougher to find in some other parts of the globe. In my experience, you can usually but not always substitute butter or margarine for shortening. The result will have a slightly different texture and a more buttery taste (which in the case of, say, chocolate chip cookies seems to be an advantage!). Sometimes this doesn't work too well. Not to sound like a broken record but - try it out before an important occasion.

Copha is a solid fat derived from coconuts, it is fairly saturated and used in recipes where it is melted, combined with other ingredients and left to set.

Lard can be successfully substituted in some recipes, for example it makes very flaky pastry.

Deep frying requires fats/oils with heat-tolerant properties. Butter and margaring, for example, are right out, as are lard and olive oil. Corn and peanut oils are both good.

2.7 Chocolates

If you don't have unsweetened baking chocolate, substitute three tablespoons of unsweetened cocoa powder plus one tablespoon of fat (preferably oil) for each one ounce square.

US dark chocolate is the same as UK plain chocolate, that is, the darkest and least sweet of the chocolates intended for eating (also called bittersweet). What is called milk chocolate in the UK is called milk chocolate in the US, too, but many people simply refer to it as "chocolate". The stuff called "semi-sweet chocolate" by some folks is the US dark or UK plain. "Bitter chocolate" is, apparently, the UK term for high quality plain chocolate.

Some manufacturers apparently distinguish between "sweet dark," "semi-sweet" and "bittersweet" (Sarotti is one), but they seem to be minor variations on a theme.

Chocolate chips are not necessarily a substitute for bar chocolates, because the chips have something added to them to slow down melting.

2.8 Meats

If a recipe calls for spatchcocks, you can use cornish game hens

3 US/UK/metric conversions

My sources give credit to Caroline Knight (cdfk@otter.hpl.hp.com) as the original source of these tables.

Where needed, the conversion used is 1kg = 2.2lb

Here are some tables I've tried to compile using a variety of sources. Corrections and additions welcomed!

3.1 Oven Temperatures

   An approximate conversion chart(P):-

   Electric                    Gas mark    Description

   Fahrenheit   Centigrade

   225 F           110 C       1/4         Very cool
   250 F           130 C       1/2
   275 F           140 C       1           cool
   300 F           150 C       2
   325 F           170 C       3           very moderate
   350 F           180 C       4           moderate
   375 F           190 C       5
   400 F           200 C       6           moderately hot
   425 F           220 C       7           hot
   450 F           230 C       8
   475 F           240 C       9           very hot

3.2 Food Equivalences

Sometimes the sources did not agree... I've given both:-) (Letters in brackets refer to books in section 11.2)

3.2.1 Flours

   British measure                 American equivalent

   flour - white plain/strong/     sifted flour - all-purpose/
       self-raising/unbleached         unbleached white
       4oz(P)                         1 cup
   wholemeal/stoneground           whole wheat
       6oz(K)                         1 cup
   cornflour                       cornstarch
       4 1/2 oz (P)                   1 cup
       5.3 oz (K)
   yellow corn meal/polenta        coarse corn meal/polenta
       6 oz(P)                        1 cup
   rye flour                       rye flour
       6 oz(P)                        1 cup

3.2.2 Cereals

   british                         american

pearl barley pearl barley 7 oz(P) 1 cup rice/bulgar wheat/millet/wheat rice/bulgar wheat/millet/wheat berries 7 oz(K) 1 cup semolina/ground rice/tapioca semolina/ground rice/tapioca 6 oz(P) 1 cup fresh soft breadcrumbs/ fresh soft breadcrumbs/ cake crumbs cake crumbs 2 oz(P) 1 cup dried breadcrumbs dried breadcrumbs 4 oz(P) 1 cup porridge oats rolled oats 3 1/2 oz(P) 1 cup

3.2.3 Sugars

   light/dark soft brown sugar     light/dark brown sugar
       8 oz(P)                        1 cup (firmly packed)
   castor/caster/granulated sugar         granulated sugar
       7 1/2 oz(P)                    1 cup
   icing sugar                     sifted confectioners' sugar
       4 1/2 oz(P)                    1 cup

3.2.4 Fats and cheeses

   butter, margarine, cooking      butter, shortening, lard,
       fat, lard, dripping             drippings - solid or melted
       1 oz(P)                        2 tablespoons
       8 oz(P)                        1 cup
   grated cheese - cheddar type    grated cheese - cheddar type
       4 oz(P)                        1 cup
       1 lb(K)                        4 - 5 cups (packed)

3.2.5 Vegetables and fruit

   onion                           onion                 
       1 small to med                  1 cup chopped
   shelled peas                    shelled peas
       4 oz(P)                        3/4 cup
   cooked sweet corn               cooked sweet corn
       4 oz(P)                        1 cup
   celery                          celery
       4 sticks                        1 cup (chopped)
   chopped tomatoes                chopped tomatoes
       7 oz(P)                        1 cup
   button mushrooms                button mushrooms
       3-4 oz(P)                      1 cup
   chopped pickled beetroot        chopped pickled beetroot
       2 oz(P)                        1/3 cup
   black/redcurrants/bilberries    black/redcurrants/bilberries
       4 oz(P)                        1 cup
   raspberries/strawberries        raspberries/strawberries
       5 oz(P)                        1 cup

   Dried beans:
   black/lentils/chick peas/pinto/ black/lentils/chick peas/pinto/
       white                           white
       3 1/2 oz(K)                    1/2 cup

3.2.6 Dried fruit and nuts, etc

   currants/sultanas/raisins/      currants/sultanas/raisins/
       chopped candied peel            chopped candied peel
       5-6 oz(P)                      1 cup
       2 oz(K - raisins)              1/3 cup
   glace cherries                  candied cherries
       8 oz(P)                        1 cup
   sesame seeds                    sesame seeds
       3 1/2 oz                        3/4 cup
   whole shelled almonds           whole shelled almonds
       5 oz(P)                        1 cup
   ground almonds                  ground almonds
       4 oz(P)                        1 cup
   chopped nuts                    chopped nuts
       2 oz(K)                        1/3 to 1/2 cup

   Nut butters:
   peanut/almond/cashew etc        peanut/almond/cashew etc
       8 oz(K)                        1 cup

3.2.7 Preserves

clear honey/golden syrup/ clear honey/golden syrup/ molasses/black treacle molasses/black treacle 12 oz(P) 1 cup maple/corn syrup maple/corn syrup 11 oz(P) 1 cup jam/marmalade/jelly jam/marmalade/jelly 5-6 oz(P) 1/2 cup

3.3 American Liquid Measures

   1 pint             450 ml ( 16 fl oz) (RD)
   1 cup              225 ml (  8 fl oz) (RD & K)
   1 tablespoon        16 ml (1/2 fl oz) (K)

3.4 British Liquid Measures

   I have got conflicting tables showing these:-

   1 pint             570 ml ( 20 fl oz) (RD)
   1 breakfast cup           ( 10 fl oz) 1/2 pint (S)
   1 tea cup                             1/3 pint (S)
   8 tablespoons                         1/4 pint (S)

   BUT 8 * 15 * 4 = 480 fl oz which is short of a pint!

   1 tablespoon        15 ml (RD)
   1 dessertspoon      10 ml (RD)
   1 teaspoon           5 ml (RD)        1/3 tablespoon (S)

And from
"Mastering the art of French cooking". Penguin UK, issue 1961
           UK          UK oz                Metric ml        US oz
          1 quart       40                    1140           38.5 
          1 pint        20                     570
          1 cup         10
          1 gill         5         
          1 fluid oz     1                     28.4          0.96
          1 tbl         5/8  (1/16 cup)        17.8?
          1 dsp         1/3                    10
          1 tsp         1/6                     5

3.5 British Short Cuts (S)

   Cheese (grated)             1 oz = 4 level tablespoons
   Cocoa or chocolate powder   1 oz = 3 level tablespoons
   Coconut (desicated)         1 oz = 4 level tablespoons
   Flour (unsifted)            1 oz = 3 level tablespoons
   Sugar (castor/caster)              1 oz = 2 level tablespoons
         (granulated)          1 oz = 2 level tablespoons
          (icing)              1 oz = 2 1/2 level tablespoons
   Syrup (golden)              1 oz = 1 level tablespoons

3.6 General Conversion Tables

Some general tables for volume and weight conversions
(mostly by Cindy Kandolf)

3.6.1 International Liquid Measurements

              standard cup      tablespoon      teaspoon

Canada           250ml            15ml            5ml
Australia        250ml        **  20ml **         5ml
New Zealand      250ml            15ml            5ml
UK               250ml            15ml            5ml

3.6.2 Weight

             1 ounce = 28.4 g  (can usually be rounded to 25 or 30)
             1 pound = 454 g   
             1 kg    = 2.2 pounds

3.6.3 US Liquid Measurements

             1 liter = 1.057 quarts
                       2.1 pints
             1 quart = 0.95 liter
             1 gallon= 3.8 liters
             1/8 cup = 2 tablespoons
             1/4 cup = 4 tablespoons
             1/3  "  = 0.8 dl
             1/2  "  = 1.2 dl
             2/3  "  = 1.6 dl
             3/4  "  = 1.75 dl
             7/8  "  = 2.1 dl
             1 cup   = 2.4 dl
             1 dl    = 2/5 cup
                     = 6 to 7 tablespoons

3.6.4 Miscellaneous

1 UK pint is about 6 dl 1 UK liquid oz is 0.96 US liquid oz. a "stick" of butter or margarine weighs 4 oz and is 1/2 cup US. each 1/4 cup or half stick butter or margarine in US recipes weighs about 50 g. there are 8 tablespoons in 1/4 pound butter

3.7 Some Australian Conversions

From a post on rec.food.recipes from Stephanie da Silva

3.7.1 Metric Cups

Metric Cups                             Grams           Ounces
                                        (approx)        (approx)

1 cup butter                            250             8 3/4
1 cup biscuit (cookie) crumbs           110             3 3/4
1 cup breadcrumbs, soft                 60              2
1 cup breadcrumbs, dry                  125             4 1/2
1 cup cheese, grated                    125             4 1/2
1 cup cocoa                             110             3 3/4
1 cup cornflour (cornstarch)            125             4 1/2
1 cup cornflakes                        30              1
1 cup rice bubbles (rice crispies)      30              1
1 cup coconut, desiccated (flaked)      95              3 1/4
1 cup dried split peas, lentils         200             7
1 cup dried fruit                       160             5 3/4
1 cup dates, chopped                    150             5 1/4
1 cup flour, plain, self-rising         125             4 1/2
1 cup flour, wholemeal (whole wheat)    135             4 3/4
1 cup golden syrup, honey, glucose      360             12 3/4
1 cup jam                               330             11 1/2
1 cup nuts, chopped                     125             4 1/2
1 cup oats, rolled                      90              3 1/4
1 cup rice, short grain                 210             7 1/2
1 cup rice, long grain                  200             7
1 cup salt, or crystal sugar            250             8 3/4
1 cup castor sugar (superfine)          220             7 3/4
1 cup soft brown sugar, firmly packed   170             6
1 cup icing sugar (confectioners')      150             5

1 cup = 250 mls

3.7.2 Metric Spoons

Metric spoons                           Grams           Ounces

1 level tablespoon peanut butter        20              2/3
1 level tablespoon baking powder, 
 bicarb soda, cream of tartar, 
 gelatine, rice, sago                   15              1/2
1 level tablespoon cocoa, cornflour,
 custard powder, nuts                   10              1/2
1 level tablelspoon golden syrup,
 treacle, honey, glucose                30              1
1 level tablespoon sugar, salt          20              2/3
1 level tablespoon yeast, compressed    20              2/3

1 tablespoon = 20 mls
1 teaspoon = 5 mls

3.8 Catties

In ancient China, 1 catty = 1.33 pound = 600 grams.

In Modern China, this went with kilograms and stuff. To make the transition easier for the average people. They invented a new kind of catty. 1 catty = 0.5 kilo ( = 1.1 pound )

However, old books from Hong Kong and Taiwan still uses the old catty = 600 grams.

3.9 Authorities

K = Mollie Katzen from "Still Life with Menu"

P = Marguerite Patten from "Cookery in Colour"

RD = Forward to British edition of "The Rotation Diet"

S = Ursula Sedgwick from "My Fun-to-cook-book"

4 Food Newsgroups and mailing lists

4.1 rec.food.cooking

a.k.a. us: A group for the discussion of cooking in general. Recipes and requests for recipes are welcome here, as are discussions of cooking techniques, equipment, etc. In short, if it has to do with cooking, it probably belongs here - though that doesn't mean it doesn't belong somewhere else, too!

4.2 rec.food.recipes

A moderated newsgroup for recipes and recipe requests ONLY. A periodic posting explains how to post recipes or requests. The moderator is Stephanie da Silva, arielle@taronga.com.

4.3 rec.food.drink, rec.food.restaurants, rec.food.sourdough, rec.food.historic

Pretty self-explanatory.

4.4 rec.food.veg

About vegetarianism. It also has its own FAQ list, with questions about the myths and truths of the vegetarian diet, information on where to get "cruelty-free" products, etc. Is probably going to be splitting RSN.

4.5 rec.food.preservation

``Rec.food.preserving is a newsgroup devoted to the discussion of recipes, equipment, and techniques of food preservation. Current food preservation techniques that rightly should be discussed in this forum include canning, freezing, dehydration, pickling, smoking, salting, distilling, and potting. Foodstuffs are defined as produce (both fruits and vegetables), meat, fish, dairy products, culinary and medicinal herbs. Discussions should be limited to home-grown or home-preserved foods.'' (From the rec.food.preservation FAQ)

4.6 also...






alt.food.mcdonalds (an oxymoron if ever I heard one)

alt.food.coca-cola (mmmm....coca cola...)





4.7 mailing lists

Please help me here. There is a bread machine list, and EAT-L, and others, all contributions gratefully welcomed. See Stephanie da Silva's list of Publically Accessible Mailing Lists, posted regularly to news.answers and news.lists as well as being available on the WWW at http://bonkers.neosoft.com/paml/index.html

5 This has come up once too often....

This list is a (futile?) attempt to keep certain well-worn subjects from coming up yet again. Further suggestions always welcome.

5.1 The $250 cookie recipe

This recipe comes up often, usually here but also on other newsgroups (where it is even less appropriate). The story goes that a woman had a cookie at [usually Mrs. Field's or Niemann Marcus' cafe], and liked it so much she wanted the recipe. The clerk said "It will cost you two-fifty"; the woman thought that meant $2.50 and was shocked to find it meant $250. She is now spreading it to get revenge, since it was not returnable.

There are a number of holes in the story, and no one has ever brought forth any evidence that it really happened. (If you want to argue that you know someone who knows someone who this really happened to, take it over to alt.folklore.urban, where they will proceed to have you for breakfast if you have no evidence.) More importantly, it has been posted more than enough times by now. Some people have tried the recipe and pronounced it good, but it ain't Mrs. Field's. If you would like the recipe, ask for someone to mail it to you.

It has been pointed out to me that the recipe is in the standard source distribution for GNU Emacs. If your site has that source, look in the "etc" directory for a file named COOKIES. Most importantly, please DO NOT post it any more. There is also a Mrs Fields cookbook, published by Time-Life. This has recipes, but not the exact ones for the ones sold in the stores, as those recipes are not well suited to home baking

5.2 Requests for "authentic" recipes

Can someone please post the authentic recipe for ...? The problem with questions like this is that, for many foods, there is no single recipe which can be said to be the most authentic. Recipes undergo a slight variation as they are passed on from one cook to the next. The only recipes this can work for are those whose creator is known (and still living) and those which were written down and preserved or published immediately after being invented.

This sort of question seems to pop up a lot about buffalo wings (chicken wings in a spicy sauce)...

6 What on Earth is...? A glossary of ingredients


Aji (singular form) is what the Peruvians call chile peppers. The species in particular is capsicum baccatum, and the derivation of the name is somewhat odd. When Columbus started this whole confusing thing with Indians and peppers that weren't what he thought they were, the Arawak people of the Bahamas called their capsicums "aji." Columbus packed them back to Spain, the Portuguese took them around the world, and within a hundred years peppers had been distributed to China, Japan, India, Turkey, and back through the Balkans to Europe.

allspice, mixed spice and five-spice

Allspice is the dried, unripe berry of a small tree. It is available ground or in seed form, & used in a variety of dishes such as pickles, casseroles, cakes & puddings. Also known as Jamaica Pepper.

Mixed spice is a classic mixture generally containing caraway, allspice, coriander, cumin, nutmeg & ginger, although cinnamon & other spices can be added. It is used with fruit & in cakes. (In America 'Pumpkin Pie Spice' is very similar).

Five-spice powder is a blend of star anise, cinnamon, cloves, fennel & Szechuan pepper. It is used in Chinese cooking


Chewy bread with a hole in the middle - round, and 3-4 inches in diameter. The origin is Russian-Jewish. Can come with many types of toppings on it. Dough is boiled then baked with toppings such as onion, garlic, poppy seeds etc. Flavours can also be kneaded into the dough. On the east coast usually used as a breakfast bread but can also be used as a sandwich bread. A well known combination is bagels with cream cheese and lox (brine-cured salmon).


A green bitter vegetable unless harvested young. Looks like broccoli but has skinnier stalks. The leaves, stems and florets are eaten. Really good sauteed with garlic and olive oil and served over pasta.

clotted cream

Traditionally served with tea and scones; a 55% (min) milkfat product made by heating shallow pans of milk to about 82 degrees C, holding them at this temperature for about an hour and then skimming off the yellow wrinkled cream crust that forms.


A Mollusk Gastropod - "Strombus" - Abundant in US only off Florida Keys, where it is illegal to take. (has been for 10? years now). Most now comes from Caribbean islands such as Turks and Caicos, Trinidad, or Honduras. One Conch steak typically weighs 1/5 to 1/3 lb appx. These sell for prices ranging from $4.99 - $6.99 per pound. These steaks are taken home, beaten with device such as a rolling pin, (to tenderize) then cubed for conch salad or conch fritters. (BTW when in Florida & Caribbean pronounce it "Conk" or they all laugh at you and double the price).


Couscous is the separated grain of the wheat plant. When dried and milled, it becomes semolina flour, which is what pasta is made out of. However, as a grain, it makes a terrific rice substitute that has the advantage of being more flavorful (nutty with an interesting texture as long as it is not over cooked) as well as about five times quicker to make than rice.

creme fraiche

Pasteurised cream to which a lactic bacteria culture has been added. Used in French cooking, it is thick and slightly acidic without actually being sour.


snails. They can be terrestrial, freshwater or marine. Escargot is the common name for the land gastropod mollusk. The edible snails of France have a single shell that is tan and white, and 1 to 2 inches diameter. This is what you see for sale at the gourmet food market for some outrageous price.


While the words may be used interchangeably US-UK all essences are extracts, but extracts are not all essences. A stock is a water extract of food. Other solvents (edible) may be oil, ethyl alcohol,as in wine or whiskey, or water. Wine and beer are vegetable or fruit stocks. A common oil extract is of cayenne pepper, used in Asian cooking (yulada). Oils and water essences are becoming popular as sauce substitutes. A common water essence is vegetable stock. A broth is more concentrated, as in beef broth, or boullion. Beef tea is shin beef cubes and water sealed in a jar and cooked in a water bath for 12-24 hours. Most common are alcohol extracts, like vanilla. Not possible to have a water extract of vanilla(natural bean) but vanillin(chemical synth) is water sol. There are also em ulsions lemon pulp and lemon oil and purees (often made with sugar) Oils, such as orange or lemon rind (zest) oil, may be extracted by storing in sugar in seal ed container. Distilled oils are not extracts or essences. Attar of rose (for perfume) is lard extracted rose petal oil.

fava/broad beans

Favas as a green vegetable are popular in Europe. In the North, e.g. Britain and Holland they are called 'broad beans' and grown as a summer crop, planted in early spring, and in Italy they are planted in fall and harvested in January, and also planted in January and eaten in April and May. They are grown for animal forage in Italy as well. They come in various sizes, but in general they are large and flat.


Portugese for beans, the default is black beans. Not to be confused with:


A waxy green fruit about 3" long. Although it is not a guava you may know it as a Pineapple Guava. Feijoa sellowiana is an evergreen shrub, growing to 10-16 ft. It thrives in subtropical regions but is hardy & once established will tolerate moderate frosts. They are either eaten raw (with or without the skin) or made into jellies, sauces & chutneys.


Used in Thai cooking, galanga is a rhizome similar to ginger in many ways. Tom ka gai (chicken in coconut milk soup) uses galanga, chicken, green chiles, lemon grass and lime juice as well as coconut milk.


Usually a breakfast item in the US Southern region. Made from the kernel of corn. When corn has been soaked in lye and the casing has been removed it becomes Hominy. The lye is rinsed out very well and the corn is left to harden. Then the swollen hominy is ground up to the texture of tiny pellets. When boiled with water, millk and butter it becomes a cereal similar to cream of wheat. It's used as a side dish for a good old fashioned Southern breakfast. Sometimes you can make it with cheese and garlic for a casserole.

hard rolls

A sandwich type of roll that is a little crusty on the outside and soft on the inside. Can be made with poppy seeds or sesame seeds or plain. Often called a Kaiser roll


Harissa is a paste of chilis and garlic used to enhance North African food (and is fairly popular in other parts of the Mideast, though it is probably of Berber origin). It is fairly similar to the Indonesian sauce called sambal olek.


Also known as asafoetida, and devil's dung. A light brown resin sometimes used as a substitute for garlic ands onions, or in its own right and not as a substitute for anything, it can be found in Indian groceries. Claimed properties : laxative, aphrodisiac, colic cure. A required ingredient in the Indian Tadkaa - the small amount of oil used to roast mustard seeds and similar other ingredients before adding them to the main dish.

hundreds and thousands

also known as sprinkles or as nonpareils : small round balls of multicoloured sugar used as toppings on cakes and desserts.

key limes

fruit, about the size of golf balls, and round. The fruits are pale yellow-green, the juice is yellow and very tart, more so than standard limes. Grow in Florida, the Keys and other tropical places in the Caribbean. Used in Key Lime Pie, with egg yolks and condensed milk and in a Sunset Key with amaretto.


the word used in the Spanish-speaking parts of the Caribbean for Taro root (or a close relative of Taro.) It is prepared by either boiling and mashing like potatos, or slicing and frying into chips. It is also used in soups as a thickening agent.

masa harina

Masa is a paste made by soaking maize in lime and then grinding it up. Masa harina is the flour made by drying and powdering masa. It is used in mexican cooking for items such as corn tortillas. The literal meaning is "dough flour".


A soft Italian cheese (similar to cream cheese). An important ingredient in Tiramisu.


sweetened sake (Japanese rice wine)


A thick smooth paste made from chocolate and hazelnuts. Doesn't seem to be particularly easy/cheap to come by in much of the US, but in many countries it is inexpensive and common. Can be spread on plain biscuits (cookies), bread, toast, pancakes, or just eaten from the jar.


A dessert (invented in NZ, not Australia :-) The main ingredients are sugar and eggwhite. A pavlova has crisp meringue outside and soft marshmallow inside, and has approximately the dimensions of a deep dessert cake. Commonly pavlovas are topped with whipped cream and fresh fruit, especially kiwifruit, passion fruit or strawberries.


These small relatives of the whelk are "Littorina littorea". Popular in Europe but not in US. Northern (New England) "winkles" are a different species from those found in the Gulf of Mexico


French fries with cheese curds and gravy.

rocky mountain oysters

You don't want to know. You do want to know? No, no, really, you don't. Oh, okay, okay. Lamb or cattle testicles, breaded and deep fried (like oysters, I guess)

sambal ulek (sambal oelek)

This is from _The Encyclopedia of Asian Cooking_, general ed. Jeni Wright, published in the USA 1984 by Exeter Books.

sambal ulek [Indonesia] Used as an accompaniment and in cooking. Made by crushing fresh red chillis with a little salt: Remove the seeds from the chillis, chop finely, then crush with salt using a pestle and mortar. Three chillis will make about 1 tablespoon sambal ulek. also available redy-prepared in small jars from Oriental stores and some delicatessens.

santen/coconut milk

This is from _The Encyclopedia of Asian Cooking_, general ed. Jeni Wright, published in the USA 1984 by Exeter Books.

santen [Malaysia] see coconut milk.

Coconut milk [India/Malaysia/Thailand/Vietnam] Known as narial ka dooth in India, santen in Indonesia and Malaysia. Best made from fresh coconuts: Grate the flesh of 1 coconut into a bowl, pour on 600 ml/1 pint/2-1/2 cups boiling water, then leave to stand for about 30 minutes. Squeeze the flesh, then strain before using. This quantitiy will make a thick coconut milk, add more or less water as required. Desiccated (shredded) coconut can be used instead of fresh coconut: Use 350g/12 oz./4 cups to 600 ml/1 pint/2-1/2 cups boiling water. Use freshly made coconut milk within 24 hours. Canned coconut milk is also available.


Scrapple is boiled, ground leftover pieces of pig, together with cornmeal and spices. Good scrapple, particularly served with a spicy tomato catsup, is food for the gods. Bad scrapple, especially with too little cornmeal, with too much grease, or undercooked, is an abomination in the eyes of the horde.


Also a Mollusk Gastropod - "Buccinidae" - found in more temperate waters than conch, with a darker meat and stronger flavor, perhaps less "sweet". This is more properly known as "whelk". These are generally removed from their shell and sold already steamed and ready to eat. The meat is kind of a circular meat, about 1 to 2 inches in diameter, perhaps 10 to 20 of these in a pound. I used to buy these at markets in Long Island all the time. Price about same as conch.


plain soda water


Tamari is a type of soy sauce, usually used in Japanese food. You can easily substitute with Chinese Light Soy or regular Japanese soy sauce. tangelo Citrus fruit cross of a tangerine and a pomelo. Larger than a mandarin and a little smaller than an average-size orange. Skin colour is a bright tangerine and they mature during the late mandarin season. Mandarins, Tangerines or Oranges may be used instead.


This is from _The Encyclopedia of Asian Cooking_, general ed. Jeni Wright, published in the USA 1984 by Exeter Books.

terasi [Malaysia] Also known as balachan/blacan (Malaysia), kapi (Thailand) and ngapi (Burma). A kind of pungent shrimp paste, used in very small quantities. Depending on the recipe in which it is used, it can be crushed with spices to make a paste which is then sauteed in oil. Alternatively, it may be grilled (broiled) or fried first, then added to other ingredients.


Twiglets are little stick-like things about 2 inches long and a quarterinch wide. They have a fairly dense texture (I mean, they aren't akin to cheesy puffs and puffy snacks of that sort). They call themselves 'original long stick savoury snacks.' Ingredients are wholemeal, vegetable fat, yeast extract, salt, cheese, wheat starch, pepper. You can't taste the cheese, I was surprised to read it on the label. The crucial ingredient is of course yeast extract, which is what gives Marmite its taste. Nothing else on the label is remotely relevant, except the fact that twiglets have 4 calories each (as if you could eat just one...). They're very nice. If you're searching for low-fat substitutes for crisps [potato chips], they have 11.4g of fat per 100g, which isn't much as these things go.

I (Amy) tried my first twiglets recently. Yes, the predominant flavour is the yeast extract, but you also begin to get black pepper buildup if you eat too many in a row. Reasonably reasonable, but I won't be buying any more any time soon.

unsalted butter

What it says, butter without the 1.5 - 2% added salt that `normal' butter has. Often recommended for cooking. Many people prefer he taste of unsalted butter. In areas with high quality dairy products the use of unsalted butter where it is called for may not be so important, since the salt is not so likely to be covering the taste of a low-quality product.


Not the same thing, but similar enough to not deserve separate entries. A thick brown paste made mostly from yeast extract, most commonly spread thinly on toast or sandwiches. The taste is mostly salt plus yeast. Despite the occasional rumor, neither contains any meat.

7 Distilled Wisdom on Equipment

This is a new section, designed to contain small articles people have put together on various topics pertaining to cooking equipment

7.1 Woks (thankyou to Steve Hammond)

First of all, the best wok is one made of cold-rolled steel. Most of them are round-bottomed and come with a ring to support it over the burner. The support ring with the narrower diameter side up is used for electric stoves and the larger diameter side up is used on gas stoves. This seems to keep it the right distance from the burner.

Electric woks can be used for table-side cooking but they do not seem practical for real cooking. With their thermostat, they go on and off, on and off... the idea is to get the wok hot and keep it hot. Electric woks never seem to get hot enough and stay hot for most uses.

A wok right out of the box will have a coating of machine oil to prevent it from rusting. Wash the wok in hot water with soap. This is the LAST time you should ever use soap in your wok. Next, it's a good idea to boil some water in your new wok for 15-20 minutes to get it really clean.

Seasoning a brand new wok involves heating the wok with some oil in it, letting it cool, and repeating the procedure, say, three times. Heat the wok over high heat, then add a couple tablespoons of peanut oil and spread it around with a paper towel, being careful not to burn yourself. Stop when the oil begins to smoke, and let it cool. Add more oil if needed, and repeat a couple of times.

For actual cooking, put your wok over the burner on high for a few minutes before cooking. To see if it is ready to cook in, put a few drops of water into the wok and they should dance around and evaporate almost immediately. Have *all* the food you need to cook, chopped and ready. Next, add some peanut oil and swirl around to coat the bottom. The oil will start to smoke a little. Immediately start adding the ingredients for the meal you are cooking.

Clean the wok with hot water and some form of scrubbing tool. The bamboo things they sometimes include actually work or one can use a nylon scrubbing pad (no brillo, SOS, or equivalent). After the wok is cleaned, put it back on the burner for a few minutes to heat it up and evaporate any moistu e. Then, add a little oil to it and rub it around with a paper towel to keep it shiny and from rusting with any moisture it may attract in between uses.

Another thing, when you are done cooking in the wok, put some water in it to soak while you eat. Cleanup takes just a few work with a nylon scrubbing pad and some hot water.

Taking good care of your cookware only requires a few minutes of time and makes it much easier to use and cleanup. Food doesn't stick to a well seasoned wok. If it starts to stick, scrub it well with something like an S.O.S. pad and re-season.

8 The rec.food.cooking Food Exchange

People from all over the world read rec.food.cooking. If mere words are not sufficient to explain a food not from your region, if you want to try local items from other parts of the world, then read on...

After a successful large-scale exchange orchestrated earlier this year by David Wilkinson in the UK, it has been suggested that ongoing requests for food exchange partners be posted as follows :

* EXCHANGE should be the first word in the Subject: line. This allows people who aren't interested to use whatever facilities their newsreader allows to avoid posts on this subject.

* Posts should indicate what you have and what you want. For example "I have Cherry Ripe bars, does anyone want to swap for Peanut Butter M&Ms" or "I'm from France and I'd like to swap regional foods with someone from the USA" (perhaps followed by a representative list of regional foods).

If you want to swap food with someone, either post your own request or reply to somebody else's.

OR try to pick up on the occasional postings people make offering to do one round of a large scale orchestration.

And now, some hints :

* Overseas postage can get VERY expensive, VERY fast. You will probably want to send all but the very tiniest of packages by surface mail. This takes weeks and weeks and so the perishability of the food items you send will need to be taken into account.

* Some countries have stringent import restrictions. Fresh foods and anything that might harbour insects, for example, are not likely to get into some countries, also viable seeds are not welcomed in countries such as New Zealand.

* Some ideas on packaging anything that is not remarkably sturdy - use a rigid outer box of some sort - wrap anything containing liquid in its own plastic bag, disasters happen - if there are heavy things packed with fragile things, remember to anchor them (maybe with tape) - use some sort of packing material (I use newspaper) to cushion the effect of any bumps - pick the smallest box that your things will fit into - coffee canisters work well to send cookies in - toilet paper tubes are good space fillers, you can slao put small things inside them

* Postage really is a killer. I can't emphasise this one enough

* Good and Bad Travellers (please contribute!):

 - Good
    Nut Breads
    Anything Dried    

 - Bad 
    Glass (usually)
     - heavy (= expensive) and breakable - with careful packing
it's ok
    Oily Things.  Wrap these well, or else they will weaken
       part of the box

9 Archives

[If you are archiving recipes from rec.food.cooking, please tell me about it so I can put it here]

9.1 Archives from rec.food.recipes

rec.food.recipes is being archived at several FTP sites :

Currently updated sites:

*  ftp://ftp.neosoft.com in /pub/rec.food.recipes (login as
   maintainer : Stephanie da Silva (arielle@taronga.com)
   This is the official rec.food.recipes archive.

*  ftp://ftp.halcyon.com/pub/recipes              

Some older (often not currently being updated) archive sites:

*  ftp://gatekeeper.dec.com/pub/recipes 
   alt.gourmand files

*  ftp://mthvax.cs.miami.edu/recipes 
   rec.food.recipes under a previous moderatorship

*  ftp://wuarchive.wustl.edu/usenet/rec.food.recipes/recipes
   mthvax mirror

*  ftp://ftp.uu.net/usenet/rec.food.recipes 
   another mthvax mirror

*  ftp://ils.nwu.edu/pub/sourdough
   FAQs and mailing list archives

*  ftp://rahul.net/pub/artemis/fatfree/FAQ 
   Fat Free recipe FAQ

9.2 Other food/cooking sites

*  ftp://suphys.physics.su.oz.au/mar/callahans/cookbook.asc
   Callahan's cookbook - from alt.callahans

*  ftp://oak.oakland.edu/pub/msdos/food
   Recipe Software

*  ftp://ftp.informatik.tu-muenchen.de/pub/rec/cooking/fatfree/
   Fat Free Recipe Archive

*  ftp://microlib.cc.utexas.edu/pub/sourdough            
   Sourdough recipe directory

*  ftp://ils.nwu.edu/pub/sourdough/
   NWU's Sourdough archives

*  ftp://ftp.geod.emr.ca/pub/Vegetarian/Recipes/CADAdmin/
   Vegetarian and fat free recipes

*  ftp://wpi.wpi.edu/recipes 
   Indian recipes


* gopher://calypso.oit.unc.edu/7waissrc%3a/ref.d/indexes.d/recipes.
  WAIS database of recipes

* gopher://calypso.oit.unc.edu/7waissrc%3a/ref.d/indexes.d/usenet-
   WAIS database of Usenet Cookbook

*  gopher://ftp.std.com/11/nonprofits/veg-info
   Information on Vegetarianism

*  gopher://ftp.std.com/11/obi/book/HM.recipes/TheRecipes

*  gopher://gdim.geod.emr.ca/11/Vegetarian%20Info/
   A healthy vegetable diet

   Millsaps College recipes

*  gopher://gopher.msstate.edu/11/Interests/Food
   MS State recipes

*  gopher://infopath.ucsd.edu/11/san_diego/guide
   San Diego Restaurant Guide

*  gopher://isumvs.iastate.edu/7%7edb.RESTAURANTS/ix.STATE%20?CA
   California Restaurant Guide

   Recipes Search

*  gopher://spinaltap.micro.umn.edu/11/fun/Recipes
   UMN Recipes

   Golden Gate Local Food Menus

www hypertext

This list was getting too long and cumbersome for a plain-text
The way I have chosen to deal with this is to set up a WWW page
all the food-related links I know about.  This page is arranged
subject and the URL is:

list of Food and Cooking Sites

If you have additions to this list, please email them to me. 
Some of
the sites I previously knew of did not respond in various ways,
I took
those off the list. The page I made contains all the sites I am
aware of,
including gopher, wais and ftp sites.

10 The rec.food.cooking album

This is in the early stages, but I envisage a web site where rec.food.cooking readers can look each other sup, seeing photos, recipes, etc. See http://www.vuw.ac.nz/who/Amy.Gale/rfc-album/index.html for the album and details on how to participate.

11 Sources

Lots of wonderful people helped compile this list - again, much acknowledgement is due to Cindy Kandolf for putting this entire thing together.

11.1 Contributors

The other wonderful people are :

ekman@netcom.com             rs7x+@andrew.cmu.edu
jane@cse.lbl.gov             arielle@taronga.com (Stephanie da
jonog@g2syd.genasys.com.au        anita@devvax.mincom.oz.au      
sbookey@ep.ieee.org(Seth Bookey)     ccd@ccdadfa.cc.adfa.oz.au
pmmuggli@uokmax.ecn.uoknor.edu         chu@acsu.buffalo.edu
cdfk@otter.hpl.hp.com             dudek@ksr.com
aem@symbiosis.ahp.com             wald@theory.lcs.mit.edu
harvey@indyvax.iupui.edu          ed@pa.dec.com
ndkj@vax5.cit.cornell.edu         carolynd@sail.labs.tek.com
otten@icase.edu                   ekman@netcom.com
loosemore-sandra@cs.yale.edu           rs7x+@andrew.cmu.edu
kts@michael.udev.cdc.com          jane@cse.lbl.gov
leander@ccwf.cc.utexas.edu           mworley@mathcs.emory.edu
cduff@sugar.NeoSoft.COM              cjs@netcom.com
lvirden@cas.org (Larry W. Virden)
hammond@niwot.scd.ucar.EDU (Steve Hammond)                       
dfw@thumper.bellcore.com (Doris Woods)
gibbsm@ll.mit.edu (MargAret D Gibbs)
rickert@cco.caltech.edu (Keith Warren Rickert)
Simon Kershaw 
Joel Offenberg 
grant@oj.rsmas.miami.edu (Grant Basham)
lmak@cbnewsf.cb.att.com (louisa.l.mak)
twain@carson.u.washington.edu (Barbara Hlavin)
hz225wu@unidui.uni-duisburg.de (Micaela Pantke)
sfisher@megatest.com (Scott Fisher)
byrne@rcf.rsmas.miami.edu (Charlie Byrne)
jmk5u@Virginia.EDU cc@dcs.edinburgh.ac.uk
bae@gpu.utcc.utoronto.ca (Beverly Erlebacher)
rlwilliams@gallua.gallaudet.edu (Skip)
hwalden@science-store.chem.wayne.edu (Heather Walden)
mcenter@amoco.com (Mike Center, PSC)
kevin@eye.com (Kevin Stokker)
steven@surya.cs.ucla.edu (Steven Berson)
eric.decker@canrem.com (Eric Decker)
peteo@ford.wpd.sgi.com (Peter Orelup)
sk10003@cus.cam.ac.uk (Scott Kleinman)
David Casseres 
Ted.Taylor@p4214.f104.n109.z1.fidonet.org (Ted Taylor)
george@dfds.ml.com (George Minkovsky)
Alison@moose.demon.co.uk (Alison Scott)
jae@world.std.com (Jon A Edelston)
conrad@qpsx.oz.au (Conrad Drake)
nadel@attatash.aero.org (Miriam Nadel)
patricia@cs.utexas.edu (Patricia M. Burson)
betsey@columbia.edu (Elizabeth Fike)
leah@smith.chi.il.us (Leah Smith) 
steve@unipalm.co.uk (Steve Ladlow)
"Sudheer Apte" 
Diane Ferrell, Leslie Basel (rec.food.preservation FAQ

11.2 Bibliography

This is a new section composed of the acknowledgements reviously sprinkled through the text. More information on these books ill be welcomed. 1) "Trolldom in the Kitchen" Pat Bjaaland and Melody Favish

2) "Larousse Gastronomique" ISBN 0 7493 0316 6

3) "Still Life with Menu" (K) Mollie Katzen

4) "Cookery in Colour" (P) Marguerite Patten

5) "The Rotation Diet" (RD)

6) "My Fun-to-cook-book" (S) Ursula Sedgwick


"If the world were an orange it would be like much too small, y'know?" - neil


Caroline Knight HPLabs Bristol UK cdfk@hplb.hpl.hp.com

Tel: 0177 92 28040 Fax: 0177 922 8972